cervical cancer ?
Cancer is a
disease in which cells in the body grow out of control. When
cancer starts in the cervix it is called cervical cancer.
The cervix is the
lower, narrow end of the uterus. Also known as the womb, the
uterus is where a baby grow when a woman is pregnant. The
cervix connects the upper part of the uterus to the vagina
(the birth canal).
cervical cancer ?
cervical cancers are caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV) –
a common virus that can be passed one person to another
HPV types are
often referred to as "low-risk" (wart-causing) or
"high-risk" (cancer-causing). The types of HPV that can
cause genital warts are not the same as the types that can
At least half of
sexually active people will have HPV at some point in their
lives but few will get cervical cancer. Usually, the body's
immune system gets rid of the HPV infection naturally within
cervical cancer ?
All women are at
risk for cervical cancer, especially those over the age of
Every year, over
750 out of 1,500 Malaysian women who are diagnosed with
cervical cancer die because of late diagnosis.
important to get tested for cervical cancer because 6 out of
10 cervical cancers occur in women who have never received a
Pap Test or have not been tested in the past five years.
WHAT raises a
woman's chance of getting cervical cancer ?
• Not having
regular Pap Tests.
• Not following
up with your doctor if you had Pap Test result that is not
• Having HIV, the
virus that causes AIDS, or another condition that makes it
hard for your body to fight off health problems.
WHAT are the
Early cervical cancer does not usually cause signs and
symptoms. Check immediately with a doctor if you have
bleeding of discharge from the vagina that is not normal for
you, eg bleeding after sex.
HOW can I
prevent cervical cancer ?
• Get the HPV
vaccine. It protects against the types of HPV that most
often cause cervical, vaginal and vulvar cancers.
• See your doctor
regularly for a Pap Test.
• Follow up with
your doctor if your test results are not normal.
• Don't smoke.
• Use condoms
• Limit your
number of sexual partners.
HPV infection can occur in both
male and female genital areas. while the effect of condoms
in preventing HPV infection is unknown, condom use has been
associated with a lower rate of cervical cancer.
WHAT test can
prevent or detect cervical cancer early ?
There are two
tests that can help prevent cervical cancer or find it
• The Pap Test
(Pap Smear) looks for pre-cancers or cell changes on the
cervix that might become cervical cancer if not treated.
• The HPV Test
looks for the virus that cause these cell changes seen at
the Pap Test. Talk with your doctor about whether the HPV
Test is right for you.
cancer is the easiest female cancer to prevent, with regular
screening tests and follow-up. It is also highly curable
when found and treated early.
HOW do I
protect myself ?
All women whoa re
or have been sexually active (even if not currently sexually
active) are advised to have a Pap Test and pelvic
examination at regular intervals.
• HPV vaccination
is recommended for girls and women aged 9-26. The HPV
Vaccine does not cover all HPV strains but does protect
against HPV 16 & 18 which is responsible for approximately
70% of cervical cancers.
• Older women
should consult with their doctor if they want the
vaccinated against HPV must continue with their Pap Test.
Pap Test (Pap
• The Pap Test is
one of the most reliable and effective cancer screening
• You should
start getting regular Pap Tests within 3 years of the first
time you have sex.
• A Pap Test
should be done regularly every 1-3 years – even if you think
you are too old to have a child or are not having sex
• If you are
older than 65 and have had normal Pap Test results for
several years, or if you have had your cervix removed
(hysterectomy), your doctor may tell you it is okay to stop
doing Pap Tests.