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Ampitab tablet

Ampicab capsule

Description
Ampitab 125 Flavoured Tablet - Round, orange uncoated tablet, bevel-edged, flat faces, 'HOVID" embossed on one face and break-bar embossed on the other face
Ampitab 250 Flavoured Tablet - Round, yellow uncoated tablet, bevel-edged, flat faces, "HOVID" embossed on one face and break-bar embossed on the other
Ampicap 250 Capsule - Black opaque and scarlet opaque capsule with "HD" printed on one end and "AP250" on the other end of the capsule
Ampitab 500 Flavoured Tablet - Round, yellow uncoated tablet, bevel-edged with shallow convex faces
Ampicap 500 Capsule - Black opaque and scarlet opaque capsule with 'HD" printed on one end and "AP500" on the other end of the capsule

Composition
Ampitab 125 Flavoured Tablet - Ampicillin (as trihydrate) 125 mg/tablet

Ampitab 250 Flavoured Tablet - Ampicillin (as trihydrate) 250 mg/tablet

Ampicap 250 Capsule - Ampicillin (as trihydrate) 250 mg/capsule

Ampitab 500 Flavoured Tablet - Ampicillin (as trihydrate) 500 mg/tablet

Ampicap 500 Capsule - Ampicillin (as trihydrate) 500 mg/capsule

Actions and Pharmacology
Ampicillin, a bactericidal antibiotic, inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis by preventing cross-linkage of peptidoglycan chains which are necessary for bacterial cell wall strength and rigidity. Also, cell division and growth are inhibited and lysis of susceptible bacteria frequently occurs. Ampicillin resembles benzylpenicillin in its action against Gram-positive organisms, including Streptococcus pneumoniae, and other streptococci but, apart perhaps from Enterococcus faecalis, it is slightly less potent than benzylpenicillin. Listeria monocytogenes is highly sensitive. The Gram-negative cocci Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis, Neisseria gonorrhoea, and N. meningitidis are sensitive. Ampicillin is more active than benzylpenicillin against some Gram-negative bacilli including Haemophilus influenzae and Enterobacteriaceae such as Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella and Shigella spp. It is inactive against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Ampicillin also has activity similar to benzylpenicillin against other organisms including many anaerobes and Actinomyces spp. Oral absorption is reduced by food and excretion is mainly via renal and biliary systems.

Indications
For the treatment of :
- Respiratory tract infections

- Soft-tissue infections

- Gastrointestinal tract infections
- Genitourinary tract infections (including gonorrhoea in females)
- Urethritis in males and females
- Bacterial meningitis
- Septicaemia caused by susceptible organisms

Contraindications
- Avoid in patients known to be hypersensitive to penicillins.
- Not recommended for infectious mononucleosis because of increased risk of ampicillin-induced skin rashes.

Precautions
- Caution in patients with known histories of allergy and in severe renal function impairment.
- Patients with lymphatic leukemia or HIV infection may also be at increased risk of developing skin rashes.

Use in pregnancy and lactation
- Safety for use in pregnancy and lactation has not been established.

Main Side/Adverse Effects
Skin rashes are among the most common side-effects and are generally either urticarial or maculopapular; the urticarial reactions are typical of penicillin hypersensitivity while the erythematous maculopapular eruptions are characteristic of ampicillin and often appear more than 7 days after commencing treatment.

Most patients with infectious mononucleosis develop a maculopapular rash when treated with ampicillin, and patients with other lymphoid disorders such as lymphatic leukaemia also appear to be at higher risk.

Gastro-intestinal adverse effects particularly diarrhoea, and also nausea and vomiting occur quite frequently, usually following administration by mouth. Pseudomembranous colitis has also been reported.

Drug Interactions
- Avoid concurrent therapy with chloramphenicol, erythromycins, sulphonamides and tetracyclines since these bacteriostatic drugs may interfere with the bactericidal effect of penicillins.

- Co-administration with allopurinol may increase the possibility of skin rash, especially in hyperuricaemic patients. Ampicillin may decrease the efficacy of oestrogen-containing oral contraceptives.

- It may affect the absorption of other drugs due to its effect on the gastro-intestinal flora.

- The possibility of a prolonged bleeding time following oral treatment with a broad-spectrum antibiotic like ampicillin should be borne in mind in patients receiving anticoagulants.

- Probenecid : not to be used concomitantly when treating urinary tract infection.

Overdosage
Clinical features : Anorexia, nausea, vomiting, abdominal discomfort and diarrhoea.

Treat overdosage by emesis or gastric lavage, if appropriate; and treat gastrointestinal distress, if necessary, by giving milk every 3 hours alternating with bismuth carbonate 5 g every 3 hours.

Dosage and Administration
Adults : Oral, 250 to 500 mg every six hours; or as directed.
Children : Infants and children up to 20 kg of body weight :
               Oral, 12.5 to 25 mg per kg of body weight every six hours; or as directed.
               Children 20 kg of body weight and over: See adult dose.

Note : The dosage of ampicillin will depend on the severity of the disease, the age of the patient and renal function; the dose should be reduced in severe renal failure. The information given here is limited, for further information consult your doctor or pharmacist.

Shelf-life

3 years from the date of manufacture.

 

Storage

Store below 25C.

 

Presentation/Packing :

Capsule 250 mg x 1000's, blisters 10 x 10's
Capsule 500 mg x 100's, 500's, blisters 10 x 10's

Flavoured tablet 125 mg x 1000's, 10 x 10's
Flavoured tablet 250 mg x 1000's, 100's, blister 10 x 10's

Flavoured tablet 500 mg x 1000's, 100's

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