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Janumet

Pharmacological Classification: Antidiabetic Agents

CONTENTS

Per 50/500 mg Sitagliptin 50 mg, metformin HCI 500 mg.

Per 50/850 mg Sitagliptin 50 mg, metformin HCI 850 mg.

Per 50/1000 mg Sitagliptin 50 mg, metformin HCI 1,000 mg

ACTIONS: Janumet (sitagliptin phosphate/metformin HCI) combines 2 antihyperglycemic agents with complementary mechanisms of action to improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes: Sitagliptin phosphate, a dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitor and metformin HCI, a member of the biguanide class.

Sitagliptin Phosphate: Sitagliptin phosphate is an orally active, potent and highly selective inhibitor of the dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) enzyme for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. The DPP-4 inhibitors are a class of agents that act as incretin enhancers. By inhibiting the DPP-4 enzyme, sitagliptin increases the levels of 2 known active incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP). The incretins are part of an endogenous system involved in the physiologic regulation of glucose homeostasis. When blood glucose concentrations are normal or elevated, GLP-1 and GIP increase insulin synthesis and release from pancreatic β-cells. GLP-1 also lowers glucagon secretion from pancreatic α-cells, leading to reduced hepatic glucose production. This mechanism is unlike the mechanism seen with sulfonylureas; sulfonylureas cause insulin release even when glucose levels are low, which can lead to sulfonylurea-induced hypoglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes and in normal subjects. Sitagliptin is a potent and highly selective inhibitor of the enzyme DPP 4 and does not inhibit the closely-related enzymes DPP-8 or DPP-9 at therapeutic concentrations. Sitagliptin differs in chemical structure and pharmacological action from GLP-1 analogues, insulin, sulfonylureas or meglitinides, biguanides, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) agonists, α-glucosidase inhibitors, and amylin analogues.

Metformin HCI: Metformin is an antihyperglycemic agent which improves glucose tolerance in patients with type 2 diabetes, lowering both basal and postprandial plasma glucose. Its pharmacologic mechanisms of action are different from other classes of oral antihyperglycemic agents. Metformin decreases hepatic glucose production, decreases intestinal absorption of glucose, and improves insulin sensitivity by increasing peripheral glucose uptake and utilization. Unlike sulfonylureas, metformin does not produce hypoglycemia in either patients with type 2 diabetes or normal subjects (except in special circumstances, see Precautions: Metformin HCI) and does not cause hyperinsulinemia. With metformin therapy, insulin secretion remains unchanged while fasting insulin levels and day-long plasma insulin response may actually decrease.

Pharmacology: Mechanism of Action: Janumet combines 2 antihyperglycemic agents with complementary mechanisms of action to improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes: Sitagliptin phosphate, a dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitor, and metformin HCI, a member of the biguanide class.

Sitagliptin Phosphate: Sitagliptin phosphate is a member of a class of oral antihyperglycemic agents called dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, which improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes by enhancing the levels of active incretin hormones. Incretin hormones, including glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), are released by the intestine throughout the day, and levels are increased in response to a meal. The incretins are part of an endogenous system involved in the physiologic regulation of glucose homeostasis. When blood glucose concentrations are normal or elevated, GLP-1 and GIP increase insulin synthesis and release from pancreatic β-cells by intracellular signaling pathways involving cyclic AMP Treatment with GLP-1 or with DPP-4 inhibitors in animal models of type 2 diabetes has been demonstrated to improve β-cell responsiveness to glucose and stimulate insulin biosynthesis and release. With higher insulin levels, tissue glucose uptake is enhanced. In addition, GLP-1 lowers glucagon secretion from pancreatic a cells. Decreased glucagon concentrations, along with higher insulin levels, lead to reduced hepatic glucose production, resulting in a decrease in blood glucose levels. The effects of GLP-1 and GIP are glucose-dependent. When blood glucose concentrations are low, stimulation of insulin release and suppression of glucagon secretion by GLP-1 are not observed. For both GLP-1 and GIP, stimulation of insulin secretion is enhanced as glucose rises above normal concentrations. GLP-1 does not impair the normal glucagon response to hypoglycemia. The activity of GLP-1 and GIP is limited by the DPP-4 enzyme, which rapidly hydrolyzes the incretin hormones to produce inactive products. Sitagliptin prevents the hydrolysis of incretin hormones by DPP-4, thereby increasing plasma concentrations of the active forms of GLP-1 and GIP By enhancing active incretin levels, sitagliptin increases insulin release and decreases glucagon levels in a glucose-dependent manner. This glucose dependent mechanism is unlike the mechanism seen with sulfonylureas where insulin is released even when glucose levels are low, which can lead to hypoglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes and in normal subjects. In patients with type 2 diabetes with hyperglycemia, these changes in insulin and glucagon levels lead to lower hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and lower fasting and postprandial glucose concentrations. Sitagliptin is a potent and highly selective inhibitor of the enzyme DPP-4 and does not inhibit the closely-related enzymes DPP-8 or DPP-9 at therapeutic concentrations. 

Metformin HCI: Metformin is an antihyperglycemic agent which improves glucose tolerance in patients with type 2 diabetes, lowering both basal and postprandial plasma glucose. Its pharmacologic mechanisms of action are different from other classes of oral antihyperglycemic agents. Metformin decreases hepatic glucose production, decreases intestinal absorption of glucose, and improves insulin sensitivity by increasing peripheral glucose uptake and utilization. Unlike sulfonylureas, metformin does not produce hypoglycemia in either patients with type 2 diabetes or normal subjects (except in special circumstances, see Precautions: Metformin HCI) and does not cause hyperinsulinemia. With metformin therapy, insulin secretion remains unchanged while fasting insulin levels and day-long plasma insulin response may actually decrease.

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