(Glucosamine sulfate and Chondroitin sulfate
Each Sachet Contains:
Glucosamine Sulfate Sodium Chloride USP equivalent to
Glucosamine Sulfate 1500 mg
Sodium Chondroitin Sulfate 1200 mg
Source of Glucosamine sulfate
Marine shrimp origin
Source of Sodium Chondroitin sulfate
WARNING: Unsuitable for Phenylketonurics.
Yellow coloured, free flowing powder with orange flavour.
Hazy, yellow coloured, orange flavoured solution.
Glucosamine sulphate is synthesized endogenous aminomonosacharide from
the glucose, which is used like intermediary substrate in the synthesis of
glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans, at level of the cartilage to
articulate. It is present as a natural component in almost all human weaves
and has a special tropismo by the cartilaginous weave, where easily it is
incorporated in molecules of proteoglycans. The salt sulphate of glucosamino
forms half of the subunit disacharide of keratan sulphate, which diminishes
in patients with osteoartritis, and of the hyaluronic acid, which is in the
cartilage to articulate and the sinovial fluid. Chondroitin sulphate is a
glycosaminoglycan (mucopolysacharide) that comprises, like a natural
component, of the conective weave of all the mammals. At level to
articulate, chondrotin sulphate is the main component of the cartilage,
playing an important role in the metabolism, and regulation of this one,
with the intention of assuring a function to articulate normal. Therefore,
suitable amounts of this nutrient can be crucial for the normal operation of
the joints. For pharmaceutical aims, chondroitin sulphate can be obtained
from natural sources, like cartilage of shark or bovine. This
glycosaminoglycan consists of a mixture of condroitin 4-sulphate (a) and
condroitin 6-sulphate (c) in an approximated reason of 3:1. The molecular
weights of the different fractions from chondroitin sulphate From A and C
between 15,000 and 50,000 daltons, with a molecular weight average of 16,
000. Chondroitin sulphate is a biopolymer made up of long chains formed per
well defined repeated sequences and of disacharides units (N-acetyl -
condrosin), where each unit is monosulphated 4 or 6 of the galactosamine.
The disaccharide unit is composed by an amino sugar (galactosamine, whose
immediate precursor is the glucosamine) and an acid sugar (acid glucoronic).
The oral biodisponisibility of glucosamine in humans is of a 26%, since it
undergoes an effect of metabolism of first step. Animal data indicate that
the glucosamine spreads quickly towards weaves and is incorporated in plasma
proteins and other biological structures within the body. The liver, kidneys
and cartilage to articulate exhibit the highest concentrations of
glucosamine. The glucosamine is metabolised mainly in the liver and a
portion of the dose is retained in weaves. In addition to the hepatic
metabolism, the glucosamine is metabolised in some degree to carbon dioxide,
the one that is excreted with the breathed air. It has been reported that
the average life of elimination of the glucosamine incorporated in plasma
proteins is of 68 hours after the oral administration.
Several studies indicate that the bioavailability of chondroitin sulfate
fluctuates between 15 and 24% of the dose by oral administration.
10% of the absorbed portion of chondroitin sulfate appears in the form of
chondroitin sulfate and 90% in the form of depolymerase derivatives of
inferior molecular weight, which suggests that it goes through a first pass
effect. After oral administration of chondroitin sulfate, maximum hind
levels are reached in about 4 hours.
In the blood, 85% of the concentration of chondroitin sulfate and the
depolymerase derivatives is bound to plasma proteins. The volume of
distribution of chondroitin sulfate is relatively small, around 0.3 l/kg. In
humans, chondroitin sulfate shows an affinity for joint tissue. In rats, as
well as joint tissue, chondroitin sulfate shows an affinity for the wall of
the small intestine, liver, brain and kidneys.
At least 90% of the dose of chondroitin sulfate is metabolised firstly by
lysosomal sulfatases, and then is depolymerased by hyaluronidases,
beta-glucuronidases and beta N-acetylhexosaminidases. The liver, the kidneys
and other organs take part in the depolymerisation of chondroitin sulfate.
There have been no observation interactions with other medicines at
metabolisation level. Chondroitin sulfate is not metabolised by cytochrome
The systematic clearance of chondroitin sulfate is 30.5 ml/min or 0.43
ml/min/kg. The average lifetime fluctuates between 5 and 15 hours, depending
on the experimental protocol. Elimination of chondroitin sulfate and its
depolymerased derivatives is chiefly through the kidneys
Adjunctive therapy in osteoarthritis
Dosage and Administration
Once in day.
Its use is contraindicated in the following cases:
Pregnancy and lactation; smaller children of 12 years of age, except low
medical prescription. Hypersensitivity to glucosamine or chondroitin and
patients who are allergic to shelfish.
Warnings and Precautions
Glucosamine may increase insulin resistance. Glucosamine increases insulin
resistance in normal and experimentally diabetic animals. In these animals,
intravenous glucosamine significantly decreases the rate of glucose uptake
in skeletal muscle. In animals given oral glucosamine, this is not observed.
Those with type 2 diabetes and those who are overweight and have problems
with glucose tolerance should have their blood sugars carefully monitored if
they use glucosamine supplements. Because of insufficient safety data,
children, pregnant women and nursing mothers should avoid using glucosamine.
Interaction with the other Medicaments
Glucosamine may increase insulin resistance and consequently affect glucose
tolerance. Diabetics who, are under medical advisement, decide to use
glucosamine supplements will need to monitor their blood glucose and may
need to adjust the doses of the medications they take to control blood
glucose. This needs to be done under medical supervision. No other drug,
nutritional supplement, food or herb interaction is known.
Chitosan may form complexes with chondroitin sulfate decreasing its
absorption. Therefore, chondroitin sulfate should not be used concomitantly
Pregnancy and Lactation
Should be used only under medical control. Administration during the first
three months of pregnancy must be avoided.
Side effects that have been reported are mainly mild gastrointestinal
complaints such as heartburn, epigastric distress, nausea and diarrhea
Peripheral oedema, tachycardia were reported in a few patients following
larger clinical trials investigating oral administration in osteoarthritis.
Causal relationship has not been established.
Central nervous system:
Drowsiness, headache, insomnia have been observed rarely during therapy
(less than 1%)
Nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, dyspepsia or epigastric pain, constipation,
heartburn and anorexia have been described rarely during oral therapy with
Skin reactions such as erythema and pruritus have been reported with
therapeutic administration of glucosamine.
Cases of overdose with the administration of this supplement have not been
Store below 25°C.
Protect from moisture.
Carton containing 30 sachets of 4.7 gm each.
Carton containing 100 sachets of 4.7 gm each.