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Uphalyte

Oral Rehydration Salts

 

DESCRIPTION

UPHALYTE Oral Rehydration Salts (Natural):
White colour granules, when dissolved in water, forms a natural flavour, clear solution.


UPHALYTE Oral Rehydration Salts (Orange):
White to off-white colour granules, when dissolved in water, forms an orange flavour and orange colour solution.

Each sachet contains sodium chloride BP 525mg, sodium bicarbonate BP 425mg, potassium chloride BP 375mg, and glucose anhydrous 6.25gm. When reconstituted (1 sachet in 250ml of water), the ionic concentration is as follows: Na+56mmol/l, K+20mmol/l, CI-56mmol/l, HCO3-20mmol/l, Glucose 139mmol/l.

 

INDICATIONS
For replacement of water and electrolyte loss associated with diarrhoea and vomiting.

 

MECHANISM OF ACTION
Oral rehydration salts are given orally to prevent or treat dehydration due to acute diarrhoea. Essential water and salts are lost in stools and vomitus, and dehydration results when blood volume is decreased because of fluid loss from the extracellular fluid compartment. Preservation of the facilitated glucose-sodium cotransport system in the small-bowel mucosa is the rationale of oral rehydration therapy. Glucose is actively absorbed in the normal intestine and carries sodium with it in about an equimolar ration. Therefore, there is a greater net absorption of an isotonic salt solution with glucose than one without it. Potassium replacement during acute diarrhoea prevents below-normal serum concentrations of potassium, especially in children, in whom stool potassium losses are higher than in adults. Bicarbonates are effective in correcting the metabolic acidosis caused by diarrhoea and dehydration.

 

PHARMACOLOGY
The basis for oral rehydration is the glucose-facilitated sodium absorption in the small intestines. In severe diarrhoea, passive sodium diffusion and the active sodium pump mechanism are not functioning properly. However, the glucose-facilitated sodium absorption remains intact, as long as glucose concentrations do not exceed 160mmol/l. Time to peak effect is between 8 to 12 hours.

 

DOSAGE
Add 250ml of boiled, cooled water to the contents of one sachet of Uphalyte Oral Rehydrating Salts. Stir or shake well for 2 to 3 minutes to dissolve.


Use as advised by your medical practitioner. As a general guideline, the following regime may be used:

 

Servings in the

1st 2 hours

Servings in

24 hours

Adults & children over 10 years

4

12

Children 2 to 10 years

3

6

Children up to 2 years of age

1

3

 

(Each serving equals 250 ml reconstituted

Uphalyte Oral Rehydration Salts)

 

PATIENT COUNSELLING NOTES
Do not boil the solution or add extra salt or sugar.
Only mix with freshly boiled and cooled water. Do not mix with fizzy drinks, juice or milk.
The solution should be prepared fresh daily. Any solution that remains unused after 24 hours should be discarded.
Do not use if granules are wet.
The solution can be refrigerated to increase palatability.
If nausea or vomiting are present, and in infants and young children, drink the solution slowly in sips at shorter intervals to reduce vomiting and improve absorption.
Give breast milk to breast-fed infants between doses of solution.
Eat soft foods such as cereals, bananas, cooked peas, beans and potatoes to maintain nutrition.
Drink water between doses of rehydration solution.
Check with your medical practitioner it diarrhoea does not
improve in 1-2 days or becomes worse during treatment with ORS, or if signs of severe dehydration occur.

 

OVERDOSAGE
If puffy eyelids are observed, this is a symptom or overhydration and therapy may need to be discontinued temporarily.

 

TOXICOLOGY

Pregnancy/Reproduction
Problems in humans have not been documented.


Breast feeding
Problems in humans have not been documented. Continued breast feeding during the treatment and maintenance phases of oral rehydration therapy is vital for the management of diarrhoea.

 

PAEDIATRICS
Although oral rehydration therapy appears to be safe and effective in neonates, it has not been evaluated in premature infants. The range of sodium concentrations recommended is 40 to 60mEq per litre for maintenance solutions and 75 to 90mEq per litre for rehydration solutions. To allow adequate intake of free water in the prevention of hypernatreamia with the use of Uphalyte, feeding (including breast milk) may continue and /or the infant may be given a separate feeding of plain water after every 2 doses of Uphalyte solution.

 

GERIATRICS
Carbohydrate and electrolyte solutions are well tolerated by elderly patients.

 

SIDE EFFECTS
Mild vomiting may occur when oral therapy has begun, but therapy should be continued with frequent, small amounts of solution administered slowly. Rarely, symptoms of hypernatreamia (dizziness, fast heartbeat, high blood pressure, irritability, muscle twitching, restlessness, seizures , swelling of feet or lower legs , or weakness) may be experienced.

 

CONTRAINDICATIONS
Precise parenteral administration of water and electrolytes is recommended in the following conditions and the use of oral rehydration should not be used except under special circumstances:


Anuria or oliguria, severe dehydration with symptoms of shock, severe diarrhoea, inability to drink, severe and sustained vomiting.


Diarrhoea is exacerbated and dehydration worsened when oral rehydration solutions are given to patients with glucose malabsorption; volume of stool is greatly increased and contains large amounts of glucose. Rehydration therapy should be discontinued. In patients with intestinal obstruction, paralytic ileus or perforated bowel, delayed passage of carbohydrate and electrolytes solution through the gastrointestinal tract may increase the risk of gastrointestinal irritation.

 

DRUG INTERACTIONS
None reported.

 

PRECAUTIONS
To be used with care in patients with impaired renal function, high blood pressure, diabetes or heart ailments. In some cases, patient monitoring may be especially important . These include monitoring of blood pressure, body weight, serum electrolytes and serum pH, glucose malabsorption tests, signs of rehydration, and stool volume measurements.

 

PRESENTATION
Packs of 10's, 20's and 50's sachets.
Nett weight:

7.84gm per sachet - orange

7.762gm per sachet - natural

 

STORAGE CONDITIONS

Store in a dry place below 30C.

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