Oral Rehydration Salts
UPHALYTE Oral Rehydration Salts
White colour granules, when dissolved in water, forms a natural flavour,
UPHALYTE Oral Rehydration Salts (Orange):
White to off-white colour granules, when dissolved in water, forms an orange
flavour and orange colour solution.
Each sachet contains sodium chloride BP 525mg, sodium bicarbonate BP 425mg,
potassium chloride BP 375mg, and glucose anhydrous 6.25gm. When
reconstituted (1 sachet in 250ml of water), the ionic concentration is as
follows: Na+56mmol/l, K+20mmol/l, CI-56mmol/l, HCO3-20mmol/l, Glucose
For replacement of water and electrolyte loss associated with diarrhoea and
MECHANISM OF ACTION
Oral rehydration salts are given orally to prevent or treat dehydration due
to acute diarrhoea. Essential water and salts are lost in stools and vomitus,
and dehydration results when blood volume is decreased because of fluid loss
from the extracellular fluid compartment. Preservation of the facilitated
glucose-sodium cotransport system in the small-bowel mucosa is the rationale
of oral rehydration therapy. Glucose is actively absorbed in the normal
intestine and carries sodium with it in about an equimolar ration.
Therefore, there is a greater net absorption of an isotonic salt solution
with glucose than one without it. Potassium replacement during acute
diarrhoea prevents below-normal serum concentrations of potassium,
especially in children, in whom stool potassium losses are higher than in
adults. Bicarbonates are effective in correcting the metabolic acidosis
caused by diarrhoea and dehydration.
The basis for oral rehydration is the glucose-facilitated sodium absorption
in the small intestines. In severe diarrhoea, passive sodium diffusion and
the active sodium pump mechanism are not functioning properly. However, the
glucose-facilitated sodium absorption remains intact, as long as glucose
concentrations do not exceed 160mmol/l. Time to peak effect is between 8 to
Add 250ml of boiled, cooled water to the contents of one sachet of Uphalyte
Oral Rehydrating Salts. Stir or shake well for 2 to 3 minutes to dissolve.
Use as advised by your medical practitioner. As a general guideline, the
following regime may be used:
Servings in the
1st 2 hours
Adults & children over 10
Children 2 to 10 years
Children up to 2 years of
serving equals 250 ml reconstituted
Uphalyte Oral Rehydration
PATIENT COUNSELLING NOTES
• Do not boil the solution or add extra salt or sugar.
• Only mix with freshly boiled and cooled water. Do not mix
with fizzy drinks, juice or milk.
• The solution should be prepared fresh daily. Any solution
that remains unused after 24 hours should be discarded.
• Do not use if granules are wet.
• The solution can be refrigerated to increase palatability.
• If nausea or vomiting are present, and in infants and young
children, drink the solution slowly in sips at shorter intervals
to reduce vomiting and improve absorption.
• Give breast milk to breast-fed infants between doses of
• Eat soft foods such as cereals, bananas, cooked peas,
beans and potatoes to maintain nutrition.
• Drink water between doses of rehydration solution.
• Check with your medical practitioner it diarrhoea does not
improve in 1-2 days or becomes worse during treatment
with ORS, or if signs of severe dehydration occur.
If puffy eyelids are observed, this is a symptom or overhydration and
therapy may need to be discontinued temporarily.
Problems in humans have not been documented.
Problems in humans have not been documented. Continued breast feeding during
the treatment and maintenance phases of oral rehydration therapy is vital
for the management of diarrhoea.
Although oral rehydration therapy appears to be safe and effective in
neonates, it has not been evaluated in premature infants. The range of
sodium concentrations recommended is 40 to 60mEq per litre for maintenance
solutions and 75 to 90mEq per litre for rehydration solutions. To allow
adequate intake of free water in the prevention of hypernatreamia with the
use of Uphalyte, feeding (including breast milk) may continue and /or the
infant may be given a separate feeding of plain water after every 2 doses of
Carbohydrate and electrolyte solutions are well tolerated by elderly
Mild vomiting may occur when oral therapy has begun, but therapy should be
continued with frequent, small amounts of solution administered slowly.
Rarely, symptoms of hypernatreamia (dizziness, fast heartbeat, high blood
pressure, irritability, muscle twitching, restlessness, seizures , swelling
of feet or lower legs , or weakness) may be experienced.
Precise parenteral administration of water and electrolytes is recommended
in the following conditions and the use of oral rehydration should not be
used except under special circumstances:
Anuria or oliguria, severe dehydration with symptoms of shock, severe
diarrhoea, inability to drink, severe and sustained vomiting.
Diarrhoea is exacerbated and dehydration worsened when oral rehydration
solutions are given to patients with glucose malabsorption; volume of stool
is greatly increased and contains large amounts of glucose. Rehydration
therapy should be discontinued. In patients with intestinal obstruction,
paralytic ileus or perforated bowel, delayed passage of carbohydrate and
electrolytes solution through the gastrointestinal tract may increase the
risk of gastrointestinal irritation.
To be used with care in patients with impaired renal function, high blood
pressure, diabetes or heart ailments. In some cases, patient monitoring may
be especially important . These include monitoring of blood pressure, body
weight, serum electrolytes and serum pH, glucose malabsorption tests, signs
of rehydration, and stool volume measurements.
Packs of 10's, 20's and 50's sachets.
7.84gm per sachet - orange
7.762gm per sachet - natural
Store in a dry place below 30°C.