NAME OF THE MEDICINAL PRODUCT
PHARMACEUTICAL FORM AND STRENGTH
Each film-coated tablet contains 5 mg levocetirizine dihydrochloride
XYZAL tablets are white to off-white tablets with a Y logo on one side.
Levocetirizine is the active component of cetirizine. It is a selective competitive inhibitor for the H1-histamine receptor, both in vitro and in vivo.
There is no evidence of any binding with other receptors at concentrations 500-fold higher than those displacing a H1-ligand. It is effective in antagonising histamine effects in both cutaneous and pulmonary models after IV and PO administration of 0,1-0,2 mg/kg.
As with cetirizine, safety pharmacology studies indicate a high margin of safety for adverse effects on the CNS, GI, immune and cardiovascular
systems. Levocetirizine is unlikely to be involved in torsades de pointes or other arrhythmias. In addition, as levocetirizine is mainly excreted
unchanged in man and does not inhibit the major CYP isoforms in human liver microsomes, cardiac and other adverse effects due to pharmacokinetic interactions are also unlikely.
The pharmacokinetic profile of levocetirizine is linear and time-independent with low inter-subject variability. The clearance of levocetirizine
differs slightly in men and women. This difference in clearance, however,
does not necessitate the use of a different dose or different dosage intervals in men and women. The pharmacokinetic profile is the same when given as the single enantiomer or when given as cetirizine. No chiral
inversion occurs during the process of absorption and elimination.
Levocetirizine is rapidly and extensively absorbed following oral administration. Peak plasma concentrations are achieved 0.9 h after dosing.
Steady state is achieved after two days. Peak concentrations are typically 270 ng/ml and 308 ng/ml following a single and a repeated 5 mg
o.d. dose, respectively. The extent of absorption is dose-independent and is not altered by food, but the peak concentration is reduced and
No tissue distribution data are available in humans. Levocetirizine is 90% bound to plasma proteins. The distribution of levocetirizine is restrictive, as the volume of distribution is 0.4 l/kg.
The extent of metabolism of levocetirizine in humans is less than 14% of the dose and therefore differences resulting from genetic polymor-
phism or concomitant intake of enzyme inhibitors are expected to be negligible. Metabolic pathways include aromatic oxidation, N- and O-dealkylation and taurine conjugation. Dealkylatian Pathways are primary mediated by CYP 3A4 wile aromatic oxidation involved multiple
and/or unidentified (CYP isoforms. Levocetirizine had no effect on the activities of CYP isoenzymes 1A2, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1 and 3A4 at con- centrations well above peak concentrations achieved following a 5 mg oral dose. Due to its low metabolism and absence of metabolic inhibition
potential, the interaction of levocetirizine with other substances, or vice-versa, is unlikely.
The plasma half-life in adults is 7.9 ± 1.9 hours. The mean apparent total body clearance is 0.63 ml/min/kg. The major route of excretion is
via urine, accounting for a mean of 85.4% of the dose. Excretion via faeces accounts for only 12.9% of the dose. The renal clearance of levocetirizine is close to 30 ml/min/1.73 m2. When corrected for protein binding, the value is about 260 ml/min/1.73 m2. Therefore, levocetirizine is excreted both by glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion.
The apparent body clearance of levocetirizine is correlated to the creatinine
clearance. It is therefore recommended to adjust the dosing intervals of levocetirizine, based on creatinine clearance in patients with moderate and severe renal impairment. In anuric end stage renal disease
subjects, the total body clearance is decreased by approximately 80% when compared to normal subjects. The amount of levocetirizine removed
during a standard 4-hour hemodialysis procedure was < 10%.
5 mg levocetirizine provide a similar pattern of inhibition of histamine-induced wheal and flare than 10 mg cetirizine. As for cetirizine, the
action on histamine-induced skin reactions was out of phase with the plasma concentrations.
The pharmacokinetics of levocetirizine are linear. Plasma concentrations (Cmax) and AUC are proportional to the administered dose. Pharmacokinetic parameters such as plasma half-life and clearance are also dose-dependent.
Mean pharmacokinetic values of levocetirizine after a single dose of 5 mg to 10 mg:
||Dose = 5 mg
||Dose = 10 mg
|N (M/F )
||270 ± 47
||512 ± 105
||0.9 ± 0.4
||0.7 ± 0.3
||2204 ± 542
||4136 ± 738
||7.6 ± 1.6
||7.8 ± 1.6
||39.6 ± 8.1
||41.6 ± 7.7
The following data were obtained in 24 volunteers after a single oral dose of 5 mg levocetirizine taken as a film-coated tablet.
||0.8 ± 0.3
||216 ± 33
||1614 ± 344
||1662 ± 357
||7.1 ± 2.0
The values are reported as means with standard deviation.