Don't fail the kidneys
BETWEEN 2,500 and 3,000 new
patients are diagnosed to have end stage renal failure ( kidney failure ) every year in
At the end of 2006. there were 14.647 patients undergoing dialysis, according to the National
Early detection can prevent the
progression of kidney disease to
kidney failure, hence the importance to raise awareness of the
Three simple tests can detect CKD - blood pressure, urine albumin and serum creatinine.
The two main causes of kidney
failure in Malaysia are diabetes
and high blood pressure, which
are responsible for up to two-
thirds of the cases.
Other causes are inflammation
of the kidneys, renal stone disease, toxins and those who "inherited" the disease.
How do your kidneys
help maintain health?
In addition to removing bodily waste
and fluid from the body, kidneys
perform these other important jobs,
• Regulate body water and other
chemicals in your blood, such as
sodium, potassium, phosphorus and
• Remove drugs and toxins introduced into the body; and
• Release hormones into the
bloodstream to help the body regulate blood pressure and make red
blood cells and promote strong
What is chronic kidney
Chronic kidney disease includes conditions that damage your kidneys and decrease their ability to
perform their function.
If the kidney disease gets worse,
waste can build to high levels in the
blood and make you sick.
You may develop complications
like high blood pressure, anaemia
( low blood count ), weak bones, poor
nutritional health and nerve damage.
Kidney disease increases your
risk of having heart and blood vessel
disease. These problems may happen slowly over a long period of
Chronic kidney disease may be caused by diabetes, high blood pressure and
other disorders. Early detection and treatment can often
keep chronic kidney disease from
When kidney disease progresses, it may eventually lead to kidney failure,
which requires dialysis or a kidney transplant to maintain life.
What causes CKD?
The two main causes of chronic kidney disease are diabetes and high
Diabetes happens when your
blood sugar is too high, causing
damage to many organs in your
body, including the kidneys,
heart, blood vessels, nerves and
High blood pressure, or hypertension, occurs when the pressure of
your blood against the walls of your
blood vessels increases.
If uncontrolled, or poorly controlled, high blood pressure can be
a leading cause of heart attacks,
strokes and chronic kidney disease.
Chronic kidney disease can also cause high blood pressure.
Other conditions that affect the kidneys
• Glomerulonephritis: A group of diseases that causes inflammation and dam-
age to the kidney's filtering units. These
disorders are the third most common type
of kidney disease;
• Inherited diseases: Example includes
polycystic kidney disease, which causes
large cysts to form in the kidneys and
damage the surrounding tissue;
• Malfiormations: These occur
as a baby develops in its mother's womb. For example, a narrowing may occur that prevents
normal outflow of urine and causes urine
to flow back up to the kidney. This causes
infections and may damage the kidneys;
• Lupus and other diseases: These affect the body's immune system;
• Obstructions: These are caused by
problems like kidney stones, tumours or
an enlarged prostate gland in men;
• Repeated urinary infections.
What are the symptoms
Most people may not have any severe symptoms until their kidney disease
is advanced. However, you may notice that
• tire easily and have less energy;
• have trouble concentrating;
• have a poor appetite;
• have trouble sleeping;
• have muscle cramps at night;
• have swollen feet and ankles;
• have puffiness around your eyes, especially in the morning;
• have dry, itchy skin;
• need to urinate more often, especially