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1.

  The following statements about Giardia lamblia is/are true :
               
    (A) the ingested cyst undergoes excystation in he stomach  
(B) the trophozoites are seen in great numbers n the crypts of duodenum and upper jejenum
    (C) requires a pH of between 4.5 to 5.5 for growth  
    (D) trophozoites may often invade the bile ducts and gall bladder  
    (E) cysts are resistant to dessication  
               
2.   The diagnosis of giardiasis
               
    (A) depends on the recovery and identification of cysts in stools  
(B) is by identifying the trophozoites in duodenal drainage
    (C) is carried out by identifying motile trophozoites in stools of children with severe dysentery  
    (D) is by detecting antibodies to Giardia lamblia  
    (E) is based on the development of severe anemia  
               
3.   Giardia lamblia cyst has
               
    (A) a prominent axostyle  
(B) four nuclei located at one end
    (C) a distinct karyosome with a large karyolymph space  
    (D) a contractile vacuole  
    (E) a size that varies from 8-19 Ám  
               
4.   Trophozoites of Giardia lamblia have
               
    (A) a prominent axostyle  
(B) a kite or pear shaped appearance
    (C) four nuclei located at one end  
    (D) sucking discs which are easily visible from lateral view  
    (E) a distinct karyosome with a large karyolymph space  
               
5.   Balantidium coli
               
    (A) is the largest motile ciliate parasite of man and pigs  
(B) lives in the upper jejenum and ileum
    (C) has cysts as the infective stages  
    (D) multiplies in the human gut by binary fission  
    (E) causes dysentery in a chronic infection  
               
6.   The following statements about Balantidium coli is/are true :
               
    (A) trophozoites burrow into the sub-mucosa of the large intestine  
    (B) erodes the muscularis which can lead to bleeding
    (C) ingests host cells particularly the erythrocytes  
    (D) forms flask shaped ulcers in the colon  
    (E) has an extra-intestinal invasive stage in man  
               
7.   Trophozoites of Balantidium coli are identified by the presence of the following features
               
    (A) one large kidney shaped macro-nucleus  
    (B) a ciliated surface
    (C) the cytoplasm is funnel shaped  
    (D) a large contractile vacuole  
    (E) ingested red blood cells n the cytoplasm  
         
8.   The intestinal amoeba(e) pathogenic to human is/are 
         
    (A) Dientamoeba fragilis  
    (B) Endolimax nana  
    (C) Entamoeba coli  
    (D) Iodamoeba butschlii  
    (E) Entamoeba polecki  
         
9.   Trophozoites of Entameoba coli are distinguished by the following diagnostic features :
         
    (A) have bacteria as its cytoplasmic inclusion  
    (B) possess a single pseudopodia  
    (C) the karyosome is large and usually eccentrically located  
    (D) the peripheral chromatin in coarse, irregular and unevenly distributed  
    (E) the cytoplasm is coarsely granular and often vacuolated  
         
10.   Endolimax nana cysts
         
    (A) have a prominent karyosome which is blot like  
    (B) have a peripheral chromatin that is coarse and irregular  
    (C) have a clean cytoplasm  
    (D) are small sized between 5-10 Ám  
    (E) have a prominent glycogen vacuole which stains brown with iodine  
 
 
 
    Answers  
1.   (A) True  
    (B) True  
    (C) False ( inhabits the duodenum and upper jejunum where the alkaline pH is favorable )  
    (D) False ( does not often invade but occasionally can )  
    (E) True  
         
2.   (A) True  
    (B) True  
    (C) False ( giardiasis does not present with dysentery but with diarrhoea and malabsorption syndrome )  
    (D) False ( IgG is the circulating antibody and its presence si associated with symptomatic disease but antibodies is not thought to have a role in immunity at the mucosal surface. The IgA and IgM antibodies in bowel lumen may play a role in eradication of infection )  
    (E) False ( does not cause anemia )  
         
3.   (A) True  
    (B) True  
    (C) True  
    (D) False  
    (E) True  
         
4   (A) True  
    (B) True  
    (C) False ( two nuclei located at one end )  
    (D) True  
    (E) True  
         
5.   (A) True  
    (B) False ( invades mucosa of large intestine -- colon )  
    (C) True  
    (D) True ( trophozoites divides mainly by transverse binary fission, occasionally sexual conjugation occurs )  
    (E) False ( in chronic infection, diarrhoea alternates with constipation )  
         
6.   (A) True  
    (B) True  
    (C) True  
    (D) True ( there are multiple superficial ulcers on the colonic mucosa usually a few diameter, with undermined edges the so called flask shaped ulcers )  
    (E) False ( the parasite has no extraintestinal phase - rare are appendicitis, vaginitis, and cervicitis )  
         
7.   (A) True  
    (B) True  
    (C) False ( the cytostome is funnel shaped )  
    (D) True  
    (E) False ( red blood cells and other inclusions are sometimes seen inside the parasites but they are not diagnostic features )  
         
8.   (A) True ( Dientamoeba fragilis is a non-invasive intestinal amoebo-flagellate and has been found to cause acute or recurrent mild diarrhoea, sometimes explosive )  
    (B) False  
    (C) False  
    (D) False  
    (E) False  
         
9.   (A) True  
    (B) False ( non-progressive with multiple pseudopodia )  
    (C) True  
    (D) True  
    (E) True  
         
10.   (A) True  
    (B) False ( no peripheral chromatin )  
    (C) True  
    (D) True  
    (E) False  

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